Adversaries of Rizal

Rizal, because of his writings, attracted both positive and negative attention. Here are some of the people who were against Rizal and his writings.

Pedro Payo, O.P. Archbishop of Manila (1876-1889)


Bernardino Nozaleda, O.P. Archbishop of Manila (1889-1902)

Eulogio Despujol, Governor-General of the Philippines (1891-1893) He ordered the exile of Rizal to Dapitan.


Camilo de Polavieja, Governor-General of the Philippines (1896-1897). He oversaw the trial and execution of Jose Rizal.

George Taufer, adoptive father of Josephine Bracken.

Wenceslao Retana, who wrote articles defending Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines.

Valeriano Weyler, Governor-General of Cuba and leader of the Spanish troops during the Spanish-American War.


Photos first published in Lolo Jose: An Intimate and Illustrated Portrait of Jose Rizal (Vibal Foundation, 2008)

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